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Who are the Hazara?


The Hazara are an ethnic group primarily located in central Afghanistan, although there are also significant Hazara communities in Pakistan and Iran. They are believed to be descendants of the Mongol army that invaded the region in the 13th century, and they speak a dialect of Persian called Hazaragi.

Historically, the Hazara have faced discrimination and persecution, including forced displacement, slavery, and genocide. In the late 19th century, the Afghan king Abdul Rahman Khan launched a campaign of forced relocation and killing of Hazaras, which resulted in the deaths of up to 60% of the Hazara population. Hazara are primarily Shia Muslims, which has also made them a target for Sunni extremists.

In more recent times, the Hazara have been targeted by the Taliban and other extremist groups in Afghanistan. They have also faced discrimination in education and employment, and have been largely excluded from political power in the country. Despite these challenges, the Hazara have maintained a strong cultural identity and continue to play an important role in Afghan society.


The history of persecution of the Hazara people dates back centuries, but perhaps the most severe and widespread persecution occurred during the late 19th century under the rule of Afghan king Abdul Rahman Khan. During this period, Khan carried out a brutal campaign against the Hazara that included forced relocation, enslavement, and mass killings. Khan saw the Hazaras as a threat to his rule and believed that they were sympathetic to his enemies. As a result, he ordered his soldiers to massacre entire Hazara villages, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 60% of the Hazara population.

The persecution of Hazaras continued throughout the 20th century. During the Taliban's rule from 1996-2001, Hazaras were targeted for their ethnicity and religion because they considered them to be heretics. The Taliban massacred Hazara civilians in the town of Mazar-i-Sharif in 1998, and forced Hazaras to flee their homes and seek refuge in other parts of the country or in neighboring countries.

Even after the fall of the Taliban in 2001, Hazaras continued to face discrimination and violence. They were often excluded from positions of power and were underrepresented in the government and security forces. Hazara neighborhoods and religious gatherings have been targeted in suicide bombings and other attacks by extremist groups, including the Islamic State.


The Taliban's takeover of Afghanistan in August 2021 has renewed concerns about the safety and well-being of the Hazara people with the Hazara community facing another genocide. Despite this, the Hazara remain a resilient and vibrant community, with a rich cultural heritage and a strong commitment to education and social justice.

History Of Persecution


The Hazarajat


The Hazarajat is a mountainous region in central Afghanistan that has historically been inhabited primarily by Hazara people. The name "Hazarajat" means "land of the Hazara" in Persian. Known for its natural beauty, with many valleys, rivers, and lakes that support agriculture and livestock farming, The Hazarajat has a long history of cultural and linguistic diversity, with various groups inhabiting the region over the centuries, including the Mongols and various Central Asian tribes.

In recent times, the Hazarajat has been the site of significant political and social upheaval, with the Hazara community facing discrimination and persecution at the hands of various groups, including the Taliban. Despite these challenges, the Hazara people have remained a vibrant and resilient community, with a rich cultural heritage and a strong sense of identity tied to the land and history of the Hazarajat.

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